Thursday, August 27, 2020

A literature review of disinfectants commonly used

A writing audit of disinfectants regularly utilized The reason for this writing audit was to look at the writing right now accessible to the overall population on the utilization of a scope of disinfectants utilized inside a microbiology research facility in both the open for example medical clinic research facilities and the private division for example college research facilities. This writing survey was completed on the viability of disinfectants with the goal that past and current information on the utilization of these disinfectants can be broke down. This will help give an understanding into the branch of knowledge and help with the readiness and creation of the last report dependent on the exploration being conveyed during the writing audit and examination venture. The principle motivation behind the examination venture being led was to look at the adequacy of an assortment of disinfectants particularly Trigene which has been embraced for use in the microbiology labs of the Greater Glasgow and Clyde wellbeing board and that of Virkon which is at present utilized by the microbiology research center at the University of the West of Scotland. The writing inspected indicated that the disinfectants utilized in clinical research centers and whatever other zone where microorganisms can cause an issue with cross-tainting, ought to be assessed for their viability against the scope of creatures which may be experienced. It is a significant necessity that the disinfectants being utilized can repress or slaughter the microorganisms rapidly and by utilizing the most reduced focus accessible. (Isenberg, 1985) An investigation directed by Kasthjerg et al (2010) which took a gander at the impacts of a scope of disinfectants on the declaration of harmfulness qualities present in the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation demonstrated that consequences for the destructiveness quality in the bacterium could be connected to the synthetic concoctions found in the disinfectant with some causing a restraint of the quality while others indicated an acceptance of the quality Disinfectants A disinfectant is a compound which is broadly used to annihilate an assortment of microorganisms that are as of now found in the examples got into a lab or are at present utilized inside an instructive setting for the educating of microbiology to understudies. Disinfectants can have any of the accompanying synthetics as their primary dynamic fixing: halogenated tertiary amines, chlorine containing mixes, phenols, quaternary ammonium mixes and peroxygen’s. (Tyski et al, 2009) Thus the disinfectants can be separated into bunches identifying with the synthetic present as the dynamic fixing and these gatherings will be talked about later in the report. It is significant that specific standards are met while arranging a synthetic as a disinfectant, these incorporate:- That the substance segments of the disinfectant won't adversy affect the strength of the client and on the off chance that any medical proble m is acknowledged, at that point fitting move can be made to expel this hazard for example use PPE, for example, gloves or respiratory cover. (Cuts off and Lamontagne, 2002) It. is likewise significant that the disinfectant can render idle or slaughter a wide scope of microorganisms including infections, microscopic organisms and parasites. (Cuts off and Lamontagne, 2002) It is likewise significant that a disinfectant doesn't have an unfriendly impact when utilized on hardware.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Gender Equality Essay Example for Free

Sexual orientation Equality Essay Independent of the nation and the way of life individuals live in, it is close to difficult to keep the subject of sexual orientation fairness covered up in the cutting edge society. At the point when the word sexual orientation uniformity was voiced in the nineteenth century what was been looked for was political rights. Then as well as today imbalance among people has been apparent in our general public. Victimization ladies is a demonstration that has had a great deal of negative effect in our general public and to the ladies themselves. This has been shown through sexual orientation savagery, financial segregation, conceptive wellbeing imbalances and unsafe conventional practices. It is a worry to the entire world to a state of making the governmental policy regarding minorities in society to fix this issue. Sex fairness as a matter of first importance is a human right; ladies are qualified for live in respect and in opportunity from dread and need (Tomasevski, 1993). Should people be equivalent in the cutting edge society? People are equivalent; just that ladies are survivors of deviant social advancement. Sexual orientation segregation among people prompts inconsistent access to the assets and advantages of improvement. see more:gender separation short article Sex disparity influences all individuals; feasible gains being developed and neediness decrease are just conceivable when people are full and equivalent members in the public arena. People are extraordinary however they are equivalent in that whatever men can do their ladies partners can do it well. People are equivalent what brings the segregation is the socialization that people get. The idea that ladies are powerless has denied numerous ladies with the capacity to abuse the capacities they have (Tierney, 2007). People are equivalent in such a large number of viewpoints and ought to be equivalent. Strategically, monetarily and scholastically no much distinction that can be noted, it is immaterial. In the political domains there are ladies who are doing extemporal well. Taking the case of the simply finished up US political decision Hillary Clinton had great help and movements that would be purchased by the remainder of the competitors. In the realm of business we have Oprah Winfrey; a pointer of what ladies can do. She is contending among the men in that field and still her prosperity is a danger to many. In the cutting edge society ladies have been known to take duties of raising the families. Ladies have come up so well in that their reliance level is going down despite the fact that they are separated in compensations. This is a proof enough that if ladies are given equivalent open door with men they can do a lot of well. In the business part ladies are accepting those open doors which were believed to be for men (Kramarae Spender, 2000). Ladies are directors of large organizations and furthermore proprietors similarly as men. They are additionally all around spoke to in the administration parts and in the legislature. They have become vocation creators. Men have the activity of sharing the family duties. It is a typical event that couples can pick whether it is the lady or the man who will get a leave to deal with their new borne child. People are equivalent according to the law; they are oppressed under a similar law. Ladies are equivalent to men in all viewpoints consequently in the advanced society they ought to get the privilege to fundamental needs, instruction, work preparing and work as men do. Enabling ladies is an extraordinary apparatus for decreasing neediness and propelling turn of events. Engaged ladies add to efficiency and wellbeing in the families and networks and henceforth improved possibilities for the people to come (Cross, 2001). The possibility that men are more grounded truly is only an inclination of a couple. In the event that ladies are given comparable open doors as men they can perform similarly well. Forswearing of chance has added to diminished execution of ladies in different zones. Then again the two ladies and men ought not overlook their jobs however sharing of obligations is flourishing in the cutting edge society. References: Cross, P. L. (2001): Womens Rights are Human Rights; Human Rights are Womens Rights. Recovered on 29th Dec, 2008 from: http://www. pinn. net/~sunshine/articles/w_rights. html Kramarae, C. , Spender D, (2000): Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women: Global Womens Issues and Knowledge. ISBN 0415920906, 9780415920902, Routledge Tierney, J. (2007): Men and Women, Different however Equal: What’s the Problem? Recovered on 29th Dec, 2008 from: http://tierneylab. web journals. nytimes. com/2007/09/09/people extraordinary however equivalent whats-the-issue/Tomasevski, K. , (1993). Ladies and Human Rights. ISBN 185649120X, 9781856491204, Zed Books

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Write the Brandeis Supplement 2019-2020 TKG

How to Write the Brandeis Supplement 2019-2020 Brandeis is a medium-sized research university with a focus on the liberal arts less than 10 miles from the heart of Boston. If you’re looking for an excellent education on a close-knit campus with access to a major city, it may be a perfect fit. The medium-sized undergraduate student body (~3,600) is small enough to quickly feel at home. At the same time, having a train station on campus (yes, on campus!) means that the amenities Boston has in spades are never more than 30 minutes away. In addition to a reputation for rigorous academics, Brandeis is known for a strong history of social justice work on campus. From the student takeover of Ford Hall in 1969 to the myriad student clubs focused on furthering social good initiatives, Brandeis expects students to be informed and active global citizens. Last year, the acceptance rate was 31%. The Brandeis supplement isn’t long, but it does offer choice. There are three prompts, and you have to answer one of them in 250 words or fewer. We’ve broken each of the prompts down below, as well as an additional question that only applies to international students. Why would you like to attend Brandeis?This is the most common question on college supplements, but we have yet to get sick of it. Why? Because it gives you the chance to talk about yourself and to show admissions officials that you aren’t just applying to Brandeis on a whim. The key to acing this prompt is to do your research. A successful answer should include:  Your intended major (and undecided isn’t an option) One or two professors you’d like to work with and whyOne or two classes you’d like to take that are not part of the core curriculumA potential minor and how you feel it will pair with/intertwine with your major An extracurricular This answer can’t be a list, though. Just like with any other supplement, you need to tell a story. Focus in on what excites you most about Brandeis that is unique to Brandeis (so not the climate or the beauty of the campus). Use that as the lens through which to tell a story. If you visited, it sometimes makes sense to focus the story on your visit. Most of the time, we encourage students to talk about an educational experience that they’ve had in the last two years that you feel meshes with what you intend to achieve at Brandeis. For example, if you are looking to do lab work, you may want to write about an experience you’ve had in a lab and how you hope to continue such experiences while at Brandeis.  Justice Brandeis said, “Most of the things worth doing in the world have been declared impossible before they were done.” Tell us how you would implement change in society that others might think impossible. This prompt is alluring, but it also has some danger zones. The risk is buried in one word: “how.” Writing about something that you think should be changed isn’t too tricky. There is a lot we need to change about society to make it more just and equitable. Explaining how t hat is going to happen is the more delicate part. Answering this question well requires in-depth knowledge of an issue. Without that knowledge, it is easy to sound naïve or to suggest something that has already tried and failed. Because of this, we typically avoid this prompt unless a student indeed does have the deep knowledge that it requires. If you do want to pick this prompt, look local. Identify a problem in your community that you either experience personally or see others experience regularly. By zooming in on an issue that hits home for you, you are more likely to succeed in offering potential solutions. What is something you have recently changed your mind about and why? We love this prompt. People who are intellectually curious and courageous are constantly having to rethink their preconceived notions and shift their opinions â€" and Brandeis loves intellectually curious students. However, it’s not a good idea to scramble for an answer here just because we love the pro mpt. If you read this prompt and something pops into your head, awesome. If not, it’s probably not the best prompt for you, and we’d recommend going with #1.  If you’re committed to it, keep it small. We know that this is something we say all the time, but we say it because it matters. If you go too lofty, you risk sounding self-important. Instead, focus on a specific conversation or another moment when you were challenged to rethink. After illustrating the moment, carry the story through to where you ended up on the issue. In this prompt, illustrating progress and transformation is critical to success. International students only: Brandeis attracts students from many corners of the world. As an international student at Brandeis, how would you enrich the campus community? (250 words or fewer)This question is only applicable to international applicants, so if you aren’t one, don’t do it. If you are an international applicant, take this question into account when picking a prompt for the previous one. Namely, don’t pick prompt #1 because you risk too much overlap. This question is focused on your on-campus experience, so writing about your on-campus experience twice closes off an opportunity to present readers with a fully-formed picture of how awesome you are.  We recommend selecting prompt two or three, both of which allow you to share a piece of your culture or heritage. Then you can use this question to express how you will pursue your passions on campus, enriching the community inside and outside of the classroom.  Applying to college can get stressful. If you need help, let us know.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Era for Stay-at-home Dads Essay - 1640 Words

The Era for Stay-at-home Dads For generations, the gender role stereotype within the family has been the same: the father is a deserved pillar of family, and he has responsibility to be a breadwinner by going out to work to make money rather than staying at home as a homemaker. However, over the past few decades, the conventional gender role stereotypes of family has been largely changed to the point that an increasing number of men choose to be stay-at-home dads instead of being bread-earners. The at-home dad trend is that the father both takes on the role of primary caregiver for children and plays a major part in running the household. Although stay-at-home dads have presented a new perspective on the stereotype of family, some†¦show more content†¦Meanwhile, in many modern families, women are earning much more than their husbands so that increasing numbers of fathers are pushed to become stay-at-home dads. In addition, most working mothers are anxious about who can take care of their children conside rately and economically. Mothers neither want to hire nurses to take care of children by charging costly and needless expenses nor can they bear to make children unattended and lonely. Therefore, a stay-at-home father is the most appropriate and helpful assistant for his partner to develop her career, as the mother does not need to feel guilty and the family can save a large amount of money. The public should regard stay-at-home fathers as efficient and economic assistants for their wives rather than incapable men, these selfless fathers make their family more cooperative and economic. Stay-at-home father families promote marital equality and couples benefit from their happy marriage (Schindler Zimmerman, 348). Gender role stereotypes in family regards men as the most authoritative character in the family, while women are submissive followers with their husbands. Obsolete family stereotypes advocate that male chauvinism is a powerful guarantee to maintain the stability and permanence of the family. Therefore, women are in lower statusShow MoreRelatedWomens Responsibility Of Rear The Children And Keep The House Tidy, Traditional Wifely Duties1120 Words   |  5 Pageswhich in 1965 was not as women spent most the time in the home. I do find it very interesting that men and women with children both spend about 10 hours less doing leisure activities with kids (USA Today, 2013); I find it interesting only because the number is so much higher than originally thought which suggests that teamwork between husband and wife is beneficial to everyone making better relationshi ps. The percentage of stay at home dads has increased by 3% in 1989 to 7% in 2012 (Pew Research CenterRead MoreThe Role Of Gender Roles In The Elizabethan Era1075 Words   |  5 Pagesgender roles in early history is the definition of the Elizabethan Era. Since the beginning of time females has been ranked below all male figures in status as well as a work force. Furthermore, the men were known to be the breadwinners for the family whereas the women were meant to stay at home housewife (Sharnette). Throughout history this storetype has evolved, but an average day for a male and female during the Elizabethan Era is rather contrasting. With women having little to none privilegesRead MoreI Want A Wife712 Words   |  3 Pagesthe time of Feminism, I have watched my mom play all the roles of a wife according to Judy. I have also watched my dad do little around the house, waiting for my mom to get frustrated and give in to doing whatever the chore may be. I Want a Wife, therefore, is ex tremely relatable, it is like my mom wrote it herself. She, herself, also wants a wife. During the feminist movement era, Judy Brady wrote I Want a Wife, which shows her frustration with all the demands she has as a wife. She sarcasticallyRead MoreI Want A Wife1288 Words   |  6 Pagesaround the time of the feminist movement in the 1970s, the roles Brady describes in her essay, I have grown up watching my mom perform. I have also watched my dad do little around the house, waiting for my mom to get frustrated and give in to doing whatever the chore may be. I Want a Wife, therefore, is extremely relatable, it is like my dad wrote it himself and expects all these responsibilities to be completed by my mom. On the other hand, I know that things have changed significantly since thisRead MoreThe Characteristics Of A Boy And A Girl1536 Words   |  7 Pagesexpectations of both men and women. Historical events such as World War two as well as Industrialization are some of the major driving forces that helped sculpt our modern day gender roles as well as their negative impac ts on our society. During the era of industrialization women’s roles in society became very specific. â€Å"Welter describes the new cult of womanhood as based on four virtues --- piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness.† (O’Kelly, L.S Carney 1986 p. 129). Women began to take uponRead MoreHow Change Can Change Your Life Forever975 Words   |  4 Pagestime I began pulling pancake mix out of the cabinet and milk out of the fridge, I had reached a kind of mostly awake state. So when my dad thumped down the stairs as loudly as an elephant, I was a bit confused. My parents never woke up before 10:00 on a weekend. If one parents woke up before the other, they had to be extremely quiet. â€Å"Theodora, go get dressed!† my dad exclaimed. I goggled at him like I would a crazy person. Get dressed? Was he insane? It was 8:00! I had no school, and plans for lazingRead MoreThe First Couple Years Of My Life951 Words   |  4 PagesThe first couple years of my life was a very critical learning era in my life. I was faced eye to eye with adversity. Growing up, my family had just enough money to make it day to day. We were living in a townhouse with 3 bedrooms with 12 family members. This townhouse was also connected to a convenient store that was owned and operated by my family. My brother and I didn’t always get everything we asked for but our gracious parents never gave up on hopes of giving us a better childhood then theyRead More A Strong Work Ethic Essay1563 Words   |  7 Pagesmost people, I guess. But to me, my dad exemplified the epitome of a hard-working, loyal employee. He hardly ever called in sick; and if he did, he was really sick. He never dreamed of arriving late, clocking out early, or shirking h is duties. He was glad to have a job that provided for his family and spoke proudly of his job with General Motors. I can still recall him going off to work in his freshly-laundered, navy blue uniform. Mom would pack Dad a nutritious lunch and carefully slipRead MoreJack Arnold Paper1411 Words   |  6 Pageslittle anymore. Jack’s stubborn attitude, traditional values, and defiance toward change resist the upcoming generation’s social and family values. Jack is the father of three teenagers, and he, along with his stay-at-home-wife Norma, struggle keeping them in line because of the changing era. His kids are growing up in the late 1960s and early 1970s in southern California, making it hard for him to maintain his old-school morals. Not only does Jack have stubborn teens, he must keep up with his middleRead More What Does It Mean to Be a Male or Female in Todays Society? Essay686 Words   |  3 Pageswith advertisements, television programs, magazines, and movies that depict how we as humans should act. For years the media has depicted women as the housewives who usually stay h ome and take care of the house and her family. You rarely, nowadays, see a woman out working earning the living for her family and the man at home with the children. Women are sex symbols; they sell advertisements for clothing, cars, cigarettes, and household items. Just about everywhere that you turn you will see a woman

Thursday, May 14, 2020

How is Incomplete Dominance Related to Eye Color

Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. This results in a third phenotype in which the expressed physical trait is a combination of the phenotypes of both alleles. Unlike complete dominance inheritance, one allele does not dominate or mask the other. Incomplete dominance occurs in the polygenic inheritance of traits such as eye color and skin color. It is a cornerstone in the study of non-Mendelian genetics. Incomplete dominance is a form of intermediate inheritance in which one  allele  for a specific trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele. Comparison With Co-Dominance Incomplete genetic dominance is similar to but different from co-dominance. Whereas incomplete dominance is a blending of traits, in co-dominance an additional phenotype is produced and both alleles are expressed completely.   The best example of co-dominance is AB blood type inheritance. Blood type is determined by multiple alleles recognized as A, B, or O and in blood type AB, both phenotypes are fully expressed.   Discovery Scientists have noted the blending of traits back into ancient times, although until Mendel, no one used the words incomplete dominance. In fact, Genetics was not a scientific discipline until the 1800s when Viennese scientist and friar Gregor Mendel (1822–1884) began his studies. Bettmann Archive / Getty Images Like many others, Mendel focused on plants and, in particular, the pea plant. He helped define genetic  dominance when he noticed that the plants had either purple or white flowers. No peas had lavender colors as one might suspect. Up to that time, scientists believed that physical traits in a child would always be a blend of the traits of the parents. Mendel proved that in some cases, the offspring can inherit different traits separately. In his pea plants, traits were visible only if an allele was dominant or if both alleles were recessive. Mendel described a genotype ratio of 1:2:1 and a phenotype ratio of 3:1. Both would be consequential for further research. While Mendels work laid the foundation, it was German botanist Carl Correns (1864–1933) who is credited with the actual discovery of incomplete dominance. In the early 1900s, Correns conducted similar research on four oclock plants. In his work, Correns observed a blend of colors in flower petals. This led him to the conclusion that the 1:2:1 genotype ratio prevailed and that each genotype had its own phenotype. In turn, this allowed the heterozygotes to display both alleles rather than a dominant one, as Mendel had found. Example: Snapdragons As an example, incomplete dominance is seen in cross-pollination experiments between red and white snapdragon plants. In this monohybrid cross, the allele that produces the red color (R) is not completely expressed over the allele that produces the white color (r). The resulting offspring are all pink. The genotypes are:  Red (RR)  X  White (rr) Pink (Rr). When the first filial (F1) generation consisting of all pink plants is allowed to cross-pollinate, the resulting plants (F2 generation) consist of all three phenotypes  [1/4 Red (RR): 1/2 Pink (Rr): 1/4 White (rr)]. The phenotypic ratio is 1:2:1.When the F1  generation is allowed to cross-pollinate with true breeding red plants, the resulting F2  plants consist of red and pink phenotypes [1/2 Red (RR): 1/2 Pink (Rr)]. The phenotypic ratio is 1:1.When the F1  generation is allowed to cross-pollinate with true breeding white plants, the resulting F2  plants consist of white and pink phenotypes [1/2 White (rr): 1/2 Pink (Rr)]. The phenotypic ratio is 1:1. In incomplete dominance, the intermediate trait is the heterozygous genotype. In the case of snapdragon plants, plants with pink flowers are heterozygous with the (Rr) genotype. The red and white flowering plants are both homozygous for plant color with genotypes of (RR) red and (rr) white. Polygenic Traits Polygenic traits,  such as height, weight, eye color, and skin color, are determined by more than one gene and by interactions among several alleles. The genes contributing to these traits equally influence the phenotype and the alleles for these genes are found on different chromosomes. The alleles have an additive effect on the phenotype resulting in varying degrees of phenotypic expression. Individuals may express varying degrees of a dominant phenotype, recessive phenotype, or intermediate phenotype. Those that inherit more dominant alleles will have a greater expression of the dominant phenotype.Those that inherit more recessive alleles will have a greater expression of the recessive phenotype.Those that inherit various combinations of dominant and recessive alleles will express the intermediate phenotype to varying degrees.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Airline Industry Essay - 1242 Words

Today one of the world’s most competitive and prominent industries is the airlines industry. They generate huge amounts of income as well as employment. Some of the common names in US air travel service providers are Alaska, Northwest, Southwest, US airways, American etc. According to the latest statistics given by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the airline sector will post a profit of $9 billion in 2011. Business travel is increasing and even the airlines are now investing again. Political/Legal influences Over the years airlines have undergone large-scale privatization, as a significant portion of it used to be government-owned. Privatizing it has led to drastic increase in the number of air service providers†¦show more content†¦In United Kingdom when the government imposed high taxes on the aviation industry, the number of cargo operators reduced (My-Efficient-Planet, 2010). At the same place governments tend to support aviation industry by building airports, roads and hotels near airports. In addition governments tend to arrange security at the airport to ensure safe journey. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 had negative implications for the industry. All the airlines changed their routes, marketing tactics and prices. They also tried to reduce the fear and negative image that got associated with airlines. Governments have imposed strict security checks on air travel passengers in order to avoid any unforeseen terrorist activity. Economic forces The growth of airline industry in any country is directly proportional to the GDP growth of that country. The demand of the aviation industry is based on the elasticity of demand and the current market condition. (InnovativeThinker, 2007) Fuel is one of the basic requirements for the airline industry to remain operational. Fuel price increases negatively influence airlines in multiple ways, firstly an increase in oil price raise the costs for companies; secondly it creates supply shock and reduced the GDP growth thus reduces the airline demand. Hiking fuel prices have increased the costs ofShow MoreRelatedAirline Industry : The Airlines Essay1637 Words   |  7 Pagespaper, I equally contemplated each industry while being forced to choose only one to focus on. I felt the most inclined to select the airlines industry, specifically Delta Airlines, since my father is a longtime employee for the company. I believe this assignment is an interesting and enthralling way for young people to begin to understand the complexity and importance that goes into analyzing an industry’s annual, quarterly and daily reports. The airlines industry has always been and will alwaysRead MoreThe Airlines And The Airline Industry800 Words   |  4 PagesThe airline industry has been around for years, it has suffered its ups and downs due to attacks such as the one that occurred in September 11, and even most recent as the Paris attack that occurred this past year. Major Airlines have suffered a decline in their profitability which has forced many airlines to file for bankruptcy. However, when bad times hit an industry some companies are forced to quit, while others are forced to change their strategy and continue moving forward. In the airline industryRead MoreAirline Industry1042 Words   |  5 Pagesbeen a key part of business and will continue to be. Technology increases productivity, efficiency, and in many times lowers the cost of making products. When looking to acquire another company one must compare the technology of that company to its industry. How much will a company have to invest in a company to get the technology updated and personnel trained on those machines? How much would the company gain by implementing this new technology? Socio-cultural factors are a mindset of customersRead MoreThe Airline Industry1093 Words   |  5 Pages2013, over three billion passengers were carried by the world’s airlines† (Facts Figures, 2014). This fact demonstrates how the airline industry is a ubiquitous part of our lives. Even if a person has never used an airline for personal transportation, they are still likely to have consumed and/or used an assortment of goods transported by the industry. Still, even with its major impact on the world around it, inside the airline industry, firms must learn to encounter a wide array of external factorsRead MoreAirline Industry. The Airline Industry Offers An Efficient1243 Words   |  5 Pages Airline Industry The airline industry offers an efficient and unique service to customers. This industry is able to provide convenient transportation to people that wants to travel long distances. The airplane has been an invention that has improved the way people travel from one place to another. People has been able to experience traveling in a different way since the presence of airplanes. The airline industry has developed over time and is making it possible to travel to far places in a smallRead MoreSouthwest Airlines And The Airline Industry1640 Words   |  7 PagesSouthwest Airlines, a cost leader in the airline industry, was faced with an important decision on whether or not to enter LaGuardia Airport’s expensive, heavily regulated and congested market. How does a leader airline in discount airfare, continue to expand into high traffic markets without compromising its core strategies and disrupting its existing network? Founded in 1967, Southwest entered the airline industry at a time when interstate travel was heavily regulated by the Civil Aeronautics BoardRead MoreAirline Industry : Delta Airlines1599 Words   |  7 Pages Though Delta Airlines which is my choice of Airline does not operate solely as cargo carrier but as both passengers and Cargo carrier. Usually people ask where the difference between passengers and cargo carrier lies and the difference is simply the schedule and types of aircrafts used in each operation. For cargo only freighters there is no need for windows, seats and other comforts usually expected by customers. But operating a combined passenger/cargo aircraft, most basic requirementsRead MoreSouthwest Airlines And The Airline Industry946 Words   |  4 PagesExecutive Summary Southwest Airlines is a competitor in the airline industry who models themselves as a low fare company who cares about people. These two aspects are that backbone to their business. It is what sets them apart from their major competitors, such as Delta/Northwest, Continental/United, JetBlue, and Allegiant. Government regulation has allowed for more travel due to deregulation. This means there are more consumers than ever entering the industry. As more consumers enter the marketRead MoreAirline Industry : Southwest Airlines1925 Words   |  8 PagesSouthwest Airlines, founded in 1967, entered the airline industry at a time when the interstate travel was heavily regulated by the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB).10 Some of those regulations are airlines were not allowed to discount fares even when their planes were at half capacity, airlines were not able to add new routes or remove old routes, and new carriers were not allowed to enter the interstate airline travel.10 Due to these regulations on the interstate market and seeing the success ofRead MoreAirline Industry : Southwest Airlines837 Words   |  4 Pagessuch as declining unemployment rates and rising income levels. Therefore, airline companies such as Southwest Airlines differentiate their brands from competitors by proactively creating value for customers. Since 2001, the airline industry has experienced greater costs due to the failing economy, volatile prices for fuel, and increased global competition. In order to combat these environmental factors, Southwest Airlines keeps airfare costs lower than those of competitors, focuses on fuel-efficient

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Analyzing Demand In Healthcare

Question: Write an essay on Analyzing demand in healthcare. Answer: Analyzing demand in healthcare from the economist perspective starts with the different primary key terms in health economics these are ordered which refers to the services in healthcare that amounts to consumer desires at given price and income. Health care need relates to the measure and type of duty that efficiently and effectively improves health. Utilization is the number of different services that are consumed. I agree with the statement that doctors have generated demand in healthcare, essentially termed as a doctor's driven demand. The reason for this is if the physician creates the demand for his services at his own will, he could face a drop in the market of the consumer-physician ratio simply due to the increase of utilization of his services without lowering the cost. Increasing the number of the doctors density could result in the growth of the healthcare expenditure with no benefit to the patient. The governments have put in place measure in the supply of medical manpower or control on utilization as a counting strategy. If the price-output decisions of the doctor were affected by other external factors to determine demand, then increase in usage could be achieved by lowering the costs. In that way, the idea would be value by the patient but this cannot be economically viable it would also result in high health care expenditure. Physicians manipulate the patient's demand for services. Doctors always deny the existent that kind of power in exploiting for all personal gain. The doctors can actually manage the demand for their services. It has been observed that when the fee charges in hospitals are reduced and depressed, the per capital service utilization of the physicians tends to rise in partial or whole compensation of the lowered price. The per capita usage also tends to grow more with the increase in the physician-population ratio. Determinants of the demand and supply of healthcare Ill-health Ill- health is the primary determinant as the request for healthcare comes as a result of the need for health services. The medical care is irregular and cannot be predicted, and that makes medical claim different from all other commodities. The supply for the healthcare demand is met when there is the availability of the medical personnel or physicians; these situations make the health care application dependent on the doctors. The demand for the particular type of service produced by a given supplier affects the quantity of that service will to people for treatment purposes. Economic determinants These are the variables either direct or indirect cost that is incurred in the process of therapy. The total cost includes the pricing of the service to the consumer, the travel expenses, all the income lost during the period receiving the service, and the non-money cost which is the time required for the services. The price of treatment is an important determinant of the demand for healthcare services. This includes the direct cost of therapy such as the consultancy services given by the physicians, services delivered all which are aimed at utilization of health services. The price of health services can have resulted either in reducing at least on the goods which are the consumption of healthcare or choose to the other commodities or both the products. The change in the price of healthcare or medical services does not affect the demand. However in the shift to high price elasticity of demand for the medical services, there is a drop in the request of the medical service. The physical availability of the healthcare providers has an effect on the utilization of the medical services. The implication is that the consumer of the health services gives value to the time spent on the event of visiting the health facilities. The waiting time for the customer to get the medical services. It is viewed as the availability of the physicians and the efficiency of the health practitioner in this case. It is referred to as the opportunity cost of waiting time of the consumer to the supplier in the medical intensive care. The perception of need determinants This is concerned about the attitude of the individual consumer, the values and the taste of the services. The usefulness of the modern health treatment is one of the areas where the patient would focus on, the perceived severity of the illness, and the quality of health caregivers. At the physician provision of services, quality is taken as a key determinant as to the choice of the health care provider. The individual consumer perceives the quality, and the health professional has a different view on the same, which is essentially defined by the number of the medical staff, the presence of adequate drugs, a functional unit laboratory, the availability of power or electricity. These factors have a substantial positive impact on the demand for the medical services and all influences the choice of the medical health service provider. Regarding how useful medical treatment are efficient, all these depend on on with the individual cultural and psychological information towards a physicia n. Also, the level of education plays a part in the decision making of a patient on how the services in healthcare are to be delivered. This is evident in the practice of the patient-centered treatment in major hospital, this mode of treatment is only useful when the health professionals are offering their best quality services. The quality of health services can vary from an individual to another; this is because it has numerous views, including the direct effectiveness of the treatment to the patient, the cost imposed on the patient in the occasional visits. The side effects of the services given, the politeness of the healthcare provider that significantly affects the customer satisfaction, also the opening hours of the healthcare facilities and the time one waits to be served in the customers turn over. So going to the doctor demand must be driven by the kind of services enjoyed by the consumer which to them take as a medical necessity. The physicians make some quality improvements which reduces the demand for health care. For example in the high-quality care reduces the occasional visit hence the request for care reduces as that of quality increases. Individual income The preference and choice of the healthcare services is a major factor, in the microeconomic theory of consumer behavior. The health seeking behavior of a person is dependent on the income state of the individual. All consumers of health require some income to be able to pay the cost of the healthcare service. The access to the better facility come with extra charges, the increase in income leads to higher demand for health care services. For individuals with particular health status or conditions, the changes in the prices of medical affect the needs of the services. Health insurance and the demand for healthcare The insurance aims to reduce the variability in a person's income and pools risk with a large number of individuals. With this, the population can cater for the cost of healthcare. The doctors induced demand will be high as the people can access the healthcare utilization, and this tends to rise the demand for healthcare. All the money paid to the health insurance can get interested and indeed is paid out to the health services when the consumer gets sick. The health insurance would not be of importance if every person had average needs. The insurance makes it possible to obtain health services without going bankrupt. Due to the results of the uncertainty all health illness and medical expenditures are not predictable, the policies cover for hospitalizations, serious injuries, and other modern treatments that can be very expensive to pay as an individual patient. On the physicians end the demand for healthcare with being in his favor as the gains and benefits will be paid by the insu rance companies that covers the patients. The market for health insurance will be affected by various factors which include the probability of occurrence of the illness. Also the intensity of loss about income which is the cost of the disease, and lastly the price or premiums paid to the insurance companies increase in the prices results to fewer individual insure against a given event. Conclusions The demand for healthcare can vary considerably and has many dimensions. The major one has to do with the quality of services offered by the healthcare providers. The relate to the productivity of the healthcare service determined by the training of the doctor, the technology in place. So it's right to suggest that the earlier assumption that the physician the demand for healthcare is doctor driven because if the physicians sufficiently have the adequate requirements, then demand is motivated by the fulfillment of the activities as by medical necessity. References Cretin, S., N., Duan, A. P., Williams, X. Gu and Shi Y. (1988). The Modeling the Effects of Insurance on Health Utilization in China. Cropper, M. L.( 1977). Health, Investment in Health, and Occupational Choice. Journal of Political Economy 85(6): 127394. Dunlop, D. W., and Martins J. M.. (1995). An International Assessment of Health Care Financing: Lessons for Developing Countries. Economic Development Institute (EDI) Seminar Series. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. Gertler, P, and Jeffrey H. (1997). Strategies for Pricing Publicly Provided Health Services. Policy Research Working Paper (1762). World Bank, Washington, D.C. Manning, W. G, Joseph P. N, Naihua D, and Emmet B. K, Arleen L, and Susan M. M. (1987). Health Insurance and the Demand for Medical Care: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment. American Economic Review 77(3): 25177. Manski, C. and Daniel M (1981). Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. McFadden, Daniel. (1981). Econometric Models of Probabilistic Choice. In C. Manski and D. McFadden, eds., Structural Analysis of Discrete Data with Econometric Applications. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. Newhouse, J (1993). Free for All: Lessons from the RAND Health Insurance Experiment. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Phelps, C. E. (1992). Health Economics. New York: HarperCollins. Smith, M. C., and Garner, D. D. (1974). Effects of a Medicaid Program on Prescription Drug Availability and Acquisition. Medical Care 12(7): 57181. World Bank. (1993). World Development Report 1993. New York: Oxford University Press.